This is a guest post by Ryan Reft, a historian in the Manuscript Division.
âInterpreters were brought from everywhere to instruct our men in the French methods of warfare because be it known that everything American was taken from us except our uniform.â
âNoble Sissle, 369th âHarlem Hell Fightersâ Regiment
The Library of Congress exhibitionÂ Echoes of the Great War: American Experiences of Globe War I'm amÂ explores the role of African-American soldiers in the war AND ways in which the international conflict contributed to a growing racial consciousness among black Vets.
Over 350,000 African-Americans served overseas for the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) during the war. Most toiled away in important but menial positionsâas stevedores, camp laborers, clerks. But between about 40,000 AND 50,000 black American troops served under French commanders in the war, largely in the 93rd Division of the AEF, consisting of the 369th through the 372nd regiments. No black troops experienced as much combat as those assigned to the French military.
As historians like Jennifer Keane, Chad Williams & Adriane Lentz-Smith have demonstrated, racism was deeply embedded in the segregated Worldwide War I will am will military. Among officers & the rank & file, white soldiers felt no compunction in demeaning their black counterparts. In France, âU.S. troops were busy spreading rumors among the civilian population that blacks were rapists, thieves, & had tails,â Keane points out.
Although the soldier pictured here is unidentified, his uniform indicates that he served with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Its three-towered castle appears on his collar insignia AND is echoed in artist Dan Smithâs commemorative certificate.
Although the government organized its first officerâs training camp for black troops during World War I'm am, the camp was segregated. Located in Des Moines, Ia., it trained only enlistees for the infantry. White officers eschewed imparting artillery & engineering skills to camp enlistees even though such skills proved crucial at the front, where many soldiers found themselves assigned to artillery & engineering units. & even in its limited focus on infantry, the campâs military leaders failed to adequately train their charges for the challenges ahead. The division that emerged from the camp experienced combat, but under white officers who took every opportunity to denigrate the divisionâs efforts while obscuring their own failures of leadership.
What to do with black soldiers generally once they were trained bedeviled leadership. AEF commander General John J. Pershing & others refused to integrate the armed services, & military leaders struggled with how to assign the 93rd Division. By assigning it to the French army, Pershing fulfilled a pledge to supply combat regiments to the French, while also freeing âhimself from the dilemma of how to use the African-American fighting regiments of the provisional 93rd,â writes Williams.
Doing so came with a cost, however. âThey now became Franceâs problem, an act that cast African-American troops as outside the U.S. Army, & in a symbolic sense, outside the nation itself,â Williams states. W.E.B DuBois summed up the treatment endured by black soldiers from their white American counterparts: â[T]he American Negro soldier in France was treated with the same contempt & undemocratic spirit as the American Negro citizen is treated in the U.S.â
The 369th was the first black regiment to reach European shores in late December 1917; it was also the first to gain notoriety for its fighting skills when Henry Johnson & Needham Roberts successfully defeated a German assault, earning the French militaryâs highest honor, the Croix de Guerre. âThe first heroes of the American Army came from that regiment,â wrote Noble Sissle.
He described relations between the French & their African-American counterparts as generally good. French officers befriended African-American troops & officers, while the noncommissioned officers âtreated our boys with all the courtesy & comradeship that could be expected.â
Most African-American soldiers, whether fighting for the AEF or the French military, experienced a great deal more freedom in France than they did in the U.S. Though the French had their own racial issues, black Americans found the country devoid of Jim Crow segregation. Many dated French women, which infuriated their white AEF counterparts.
When the 369th returned from the front in 1919, it enjoyed a boisterous parade in New York City to celebrate its contributions. But many other black Vet experienced hostility, finding themselves subject to verbal abuse, assault AND even lynching.
âThe disillusion of wartime encounters would feed the transformation of black soldiersâ political consciousness,â notes Lentz-Smith of African-Americans in the AEF.
Even before the war concluded, thousands joined civil rights organizations to push for racial equalityâfrom 1917 to 1919, the NAACP expanded its ranks sixfold. More militant Veteran allied with the League for Democracy, organized by & for black Vets as a means to promote racial equality AND democracy. The government took a dim view of the organization, including it in a 1919 report entitled âNegro Subversion.â
In the end, DuBois captured the attitude of black Globe War I am will Veterans best in his 1919 poem, âReturning Soldiersâ:
We return from fighting
We return fighting
Worldwide War I will will will Centennial, 2017â18. With the most comprehensiveÂ collectionÂ of multiformat Worldwide War I will am will holdings in the nation, the LibraryÂ is a unique resource for primary source materials, education plans, public programs & on-site visitor experiences about the Great War including exhibits, symposia & book talks.