James Madison Carpenter traveled 40,000 miles to make his collection, many of them in this little car!
On behalf of the American Folklife Center, I'm am pleased to announce that our James Madison Carpenter collection is now online. The collection, which consists of manuscripts, audio, photographs, & drawings documenting British folk music, song, & drama in the first half of the 20th century, is available world through the Vaughan Williams Memorial Libraryâs digital archive, managed by the English Folk Dance & Song Society (EFDSS) in the UK. The collection was digitized by AFC & placed online through a partnership of the Elphinstone Institute at the University of Aberdeen & EFDSS, with a grant provided by the UKâs Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC).
The collection itself was the work of James Madison Carpenter, a Harvard-trained scholar who gathered more than 3,000 traditional songs & 300 folk plays, as well as fiddle tunes, folk customs, childrenâs games, & traditional tales.Â He collected most of them in Britain between 1928 and 1935, with a smaller number coming from the USA, between 1927 & 1943. Carpenter traveled over forty thousand miles to make his collection, including to Cornwall, Wales, the Cotswolds, Lincolnshire, the Northeast of England, and the Northeast of Scotland. He spent time in local communities recording traditional ballads, âbothy songs,â seasonal carols, sea shanties, & more. Unlike earlier collectors, he made sound recordings of some of his contributors on wax cylinders, including some performers whose songs & tunes had previously been notated only by hand. This makes his collection an important early source of field recordings from British tradition.
Carpenter took his British materials back home to America, where they remained in his home for over 30 years. In 1972, Alan Jabbour, then head of the Archive of Folk Song in the Library of Congressâs Music Division, arranged for the Library to purchase the collection & move it from Mississippi to Washington, D.C. When the American Folklife Center was founded in 1976, Jabbour was named its founding director. Soon after that, the Carpenter collection, along with the rest of the Folk Archive, became part of AFC. Since then, AFCâs dedicated staff has stabilized, processed, preserved, & digitized this landmark collection.
At AFC, we have always made efforts to repatriate copies of collections important to the cultural heritage of their communities of origin. We have shared collections with organizations in U.S. states such as Louisiana, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Kentucky; with indigenous & native groups such as the Omaha & the Passamaquoddy; and with archives in other nations such as Haiti. Returning copies of a largely British collection to a group of organizations in Britain fulfills this imperative to make collections available to their communities, satisfying an important goal of the AFC.
This photo of a person playing the fool is part of Carpenterâs documentation of folk drama & mumming.
AFCâs director, Betsy Peterson, noted:
This has been a long transatlantic journey that required the passion, expertise & stubborn commitment of partners from England, Scotland & the United States. Now, as the Carpenter collection finds its way back home & comes full circle, it will also reach new audiences & new generations here and throughout the world. They will pick up the songs & tunes and breathe their own lives & truths into them. The best preservation of tradition always happens through continued performing & sharing.
A team of scholars based at theÂ Elphinstone Institute has been working for years on a critical edition of the collection, and the first few volumes are nearing completion. As part of that effort, they cataloged the collection, a step that was also funded by the AHRC. (They even visited AFC to talk about their work in 2008; see the video here.) The Carpenter research teamâs catalog data were converted and enhanced in partnership with the staff from EFDSSâs Vaughan Williams Memorial Library. As a result of these collaborations, the Library of Congressâs digitized images & audio files are now available online at the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library, with robust catalog data enabling fast & easy searches of the collection.
Laura Smyth, Director of the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library, explained the institutionâs enthusiasm for the collection:
Weâre incredibly excited to have this collection join our online digital archive. Carpenter was collecting in the early 1930s â a time when very few collectors were out in the field â & so it bridges the gaps in folk research showing how the songs have developed, changed, & been passed on through the decades. This addition to the Vaughan Williams Memorial Libraryâs digital archive also significantly develops its geographical scope, reminding us that folk songs have always freely crossed between nations.
Julia Bishop, a research fellow at the Elphinstone Institute & head of the Carpenter collection research team, spoke on behalf of the team:
We are delighted that the Carpenter collection is now freely accessible online. This means that the riches it contains can be discovered again by new audiences, such as performers, researchers & the families and communities & places where so much of it originated. In particular, the distant voices that we can hear on Carpenterâs 179 cylinder recordings testify to their artistry & skill as performers.
The collection also includes 40 ink & pencil drawings by George Baker, a British dry mason whose father was a mummer. Drawings depict characters and scenes from mummer & Christmas plays.
Tom McKean, director of the Elphinstone Institute, graciously acknowledged the Instituteâs colleagues in this important joint effort:
It is thanks to the preservation & digitization of the materials by the American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress, funding from the AHRC, & the work of the EFDSS in establishing their digital archive â that we have been able to make the Carpenter Collection freely accessible to all.
The Elphinstone Institute & EFDSS are creating resources for schools using materials from the collection. A series of events & activities is also planned to bring the Carpenter Collection to new audiences across the UK.Â In fact, the first events have already occurred, & one of them involved me and AFCâs Jennifer Cutting. Weâll discuss that in future blog posts.
In the meantime, you can read more about the Carpenter Collection, and listen to a two-hour interview with Carpenter, at the Vaughan Williams Memorial Libraryâs Carpenter Folk OnlineÂ site.
Or you can search the collection here: go to âAdvanced Search,â open the âArchive Cataloguesâ hierarchy with the carat (<) to the right of âArchive Catalogues,â uncheck all the catalogues andÂ re-check only âJames Madison Carpenter Collection.â Then perform your search!
The James Madison Carpenter Collection has long been one of our most important collections of traditional British folk culture, & all of us at AFC are excited to have it online & available for use.Â Please enjoy it!