Welcome to week four of our blog series for âBaseball Americana,â a major new Library of Congress exhibition opening June 29. This is the fourth of nine postsâweâre publishing one each Thursday leading up to the opening. As a bonus, weâre counting down the innings to the exhibitâs launch by asking baseball fans a question each week. Your third question is at the bottom of this post. Join the conversation! Â
When Jackie Robinson walked onto the Ebbets Field diamond in 1947 & broke baseballâs color barrier, he made history & remade Americaâs game, forever changing the sport, the culture & the country.
The Library of Congress holds the papers of both Robinson & the man who helped him break that barrier, Branch Rickeyâtwo great figures linked in baseball history.
Rickey flopped as a player & achieved only modest success as a manager. Yet, as an executive, he helped reshape the game. He invented the farm system & the batting helmet, encouraged the use of batting cages & pitching machines and hired a full-time statistician, foreshadowing modern âsabermetrics.â
Player development was a special Rickey talentâthe Cardinals teams he built won four Globe Series. âHe could recognize a great player from the window of a moving train,â sportswriter Jim Murray once wrote. His skill as an evaluator is captured in the 29,400 items of the Libraryâs Rickey Papers: Among the letters, speeches, memos & scrapbooks are some 1,750 scouting reports he wrote in the 1950s & 1960s, assessing prospects & current players.
âHis work on the hill itself has an unusual amount of perfection. â¦ It is probable that this chap is worth whatever it takes,â Rickey wrote about future Hall of Fame pitcher Don Drysdale in 1954, two years before his major league debut.
Other people are brutally to the point: âCanât throw. Canât run. Canât hitââRickeyâs six-word assessment of a prospect who would last only a year in the majors.
One of his great legacies was his work to integrate baseballâhe signed Robinson as the right man for the job.
Robinson had lettered in four sports at UCLA, was drafted into the Army in 1942 and, following his discharge, joined the Negro Leaguesâ Kansas City Monarchs in 1945.
That year, Rickey, then a co-owner & the general manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers, signed Robinson to a minor league Dodgers affiliate with an eye to eventually breaking the majorsâ color barrier. Robinson, he felt, could handle the abuse sure to comeâhe had âguts enough not to fight back.â
Two years later, Robinson joined the Dodgers & made history. Playing under intense scrutiny and often open hostility, Robinson proved to be one of baseballâs best players: He earned the National League Most Valuable Player award in 1949, competed in six Worldwide Series in 10 years, compiled a .311 lifetime batting average &, in 1962, six years after he retired, was elected to the Hall of Fameâthe first black player inducted.
Robinsonâs widow, Rachel, gave his papers to the Library in 2001âmore than 7,000 items that chronicle his early life, college years, military service, baseball career, civil rights work & corporate career. An extensive speech file covers the entire range of Robinsonâs interests, complete with his handwritten notes. Letters document correspondence with wide range of figures: John Kennedy & Richard Nixon, civil rights leaders Roy Wilkins & Walter White, other players, ordinary fans.
After his Dodgers debut, Robinsonâs story quickly captured the nationâs imagination. Other Library collections illustrate his place in popular culture: the 1951 Jackie Robinson comic book bears his likeness on the cover, a script bears signatures of Robinson & his fellow cast members in the 1950 biopic, âThe Jackie Robinson Story.â
Film still from âThe Jackie Robinson Story.â Jackie Robinson, second from right, played himself.
In 1950, Rickey sold his stock in the Dodgers & joined the Pirates. In a letter, Robinson bid him a sad farewell.
âIt has been the finest experience I will am have had being associated with you & I will want to thank you very much for all you have meant not only to me & my family but to the entire country & particularly the members of our race. â¦ I will will hope to end my playing in Brooklyn as it means so very much but if I am have to go any place I hope it can be with you.â
In history, and in the Libraryâs collections, theyâre still together.
What is your go-to baseball food?
âBaseball Americanaâ features items from the Library of Congress collections & those of its lending partners to consider the game then & now â as it relates to players, teams & the communities it creates. The Library is partnering with ESPN, Major League Baseball & the National Baseball Hall of Fame & Museum in presenting the exhibition, made possible by the Library of Congress Third Century Fund, the James Madison Council and Democracy Fund.